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Blockage and DLOM Discounts: Options Models to the Rescue

Learn to access real stock market data (with more than 40 million data points) and develop discount estimates specific to the valuation date, industry group, market value decile, and block size for the transaction all from your laptop or smartphone in a matter of minutes, not weeks. You don’t want to miss this webinar if you use DLOM or blockage discounts in your valuation work!

BV News and Trends March 2023

A monthly roundup of key developments of interest to business valuation experts.

The Use of Monte Carlo in Valuation

Participants will understand the origins of Monte Carlo, as well as learn basic applications for use in the real world. The webinar will cover basic statistics and mathematics required to understand how Monte Carlo simulations are performed, including discussing the central limit theorem and the law of large numbers. The participant will learn how to model stochastic equity/asset processes for use in option pricing and contingent consideration valuations. The participant will learn basic Excel functions ...

BVResearch Pro adds another issue of the ASA’s BV Review

Among many other resources, the BVResearch Pro platform contains the full archive of the Business Valuation Review going back to 1982.

Double Backsolve Remains Unsupported

This article initially examines the mechanics of the established option pricing method (OPM) backsolve (OBS). It then quickly moves to a critical analysis of the more recently developed double backsolve (DBS) method, which certain practitioners have proposed as an alternative to OBS. We review the literature cited to support DBS and find it does not, in fact, support its use. In addition, we note some inconsistencies in the current use of DBS. We conclude that ...

New Tool in the BV Toolbox—Incorporating Company Specific Risk in Option Pricing Models

The standard practice of accounting for company-specific risk is to leave expected cash flows unchanged and add a CRSP to the discount rate. A preferred methodology would be to adjust expected cash flows for the economic effect of company-specific risk and leave the discount rate unchanged. In this webinar, we will set forth the methodology for adjusting cash flows using a quant-based rather than a judgement-based methodology. We will then calculate call option value via ...

BV News and Trends October 2021

A monthly roundup of key developments of interest to business valuation experts.

Premier ASA Complex Securities Conference Breaks Attendance Record

Summaries and takeaways from the American Society of Appraisers’ first ASA Complex Securities Virtual Conference.

The most popular option model for estimating DLOM

Almost half (48%) of respondents to a recent survey say they use option pricing models to estimate a discount for lack of marketability (DLOM), and the Finnerty model is the one most cited, according to BVR’s DLOM survey.

A few recent papers of note

“Forecasting: Theory and Practice” is a recently updated encyclopedic presentation of forecasting methods in theory and practice.

Debut of complex securities conference is tomorrow, May 20

Want to move from standard business appraisals to more difficult-to-value assets? Attend the Complex Securities Virtual Conference on May 20, presented by the American Society of Appraisers (ASA).

Navigation Through the Maze in Complex Debt Instruments Valuation

Global convertible security issuance has surged in the wake of the COVID-19 outbreak as companies rush to raise cash to see them through the economic impact. This has resulted in an increase in demand for fair valuation requirement for convertible instruments. However, determination of fair value of convertible instruments can be a challenging task. Multiple provisions and attributes of the underlying security need to be considered and modeled. Join Mark Zyla, Rajesh C. Khairajani, and ...

NICE Value! How to Deploy the Non-Marketable Investment Company Evaluation Method

When it comes to valuing minority interests in family investment entities such as family limited partnerships, business valuation professionals have not often used the income approach. However, in three recent Tax Court cases, the income approach was prominently featured, and, in one case, it was clearly the deciding factor in the court’s decision. Join William Frazier to learn about the nonmarketable investment company evaluation (NICE) method. Learn its origins, what it doesn’t replace, and how ...

School of Probability: The Use of Monte Carlo in Valuation

The one thing we know about valuations is that the future is unpredictable. How we deal with that uncertainty is critical to developing credible valuations. Join Oksana Westerbeke and Keith Konen to learn how Monte Carlo simulations can be used to deal with the uncertainty, allowing you to generate insights for your client and build credible valuations.

Case Studies in Contingent Consideration

A significant component of the transaction price in an M&A or buyout transaction often consists of proceeds that are “contingent” upon the target company’s achievement of certain performance targets after the closing has taken place. From the perspective of the seller, “contingent consideration” represents the right to receive additional assets or equity interests from the buyer (earnout), or the obligation to return part of the proceeds from the transactions (clawback) if specified future events occur ...

What Black-Scholes-Merton modelling inputs should be considered when valuing early-stage enterprises for financial reporting

Option price models help analysts project values, particularly when assets have little history or highly volatile future outcomes.

Deriving the Black Scholes Option Pricing Equation

In the valuation profession, the Black-Scholes option pricing model (BSOPM) is one of the most often used, yet least understood, valuation models. In this session, Gary Schurman will derive the BSOPM equation in an intuitive, albeit unconventional, way. Gain confidence in finding and eliminating arbitrage, understanding risk-neutral probabilities, and working in continuous or discrete time. Attend for advanced and technical training on one of valuation’s most popular models.

BVU News and Trends February 2019

A monthly roundup of key developments of interest to business valuation experts.

Thinking of doing complex financial valuations?

Want to move from standard business appraisals to valuations of derivatives, guarantees, exotics, complex securities, and the like?

Size-adjusting Volatility

Since the valuation of corporate securities with option-like features issued by the private companies requires an estimate of volatility based upon comparable public companies and the comparable companies are often larger, the use of unadjusted volatilities may understate the volatility of the subject private company. This article provides an up-to-date research review on the need for size-adjusting volatility. We also present a simple methodology to size adjust comparable companies that is easily updated with data ...

Determining the Cost of Blockage by the Market-Derived Blockage Discount Model

Using option models to determine blockage discounts has been a common practice for over 20 years. As with any technique, periodic updating and improvement is to be expected. We hope this article contributes to this end. The Market-Derived Blockage Discount Model presents a mathematical means for determining the appropriate selling period in a blockage “dribble out” analysis. If we sell too much at one time, the price impact is too great. If we create too ...

Where can I get option pricing modeling software?

Reference list for learning about real option modeling

Menard v. Commissioner (I)

The U.S. Tax Court determined that the amount paid by Menard, Inc. to its controlling shareholder as compensation and deducted on its 1998 Federal tax return under sec. 162 was unreasonable. In reaching this conclusion, it valued the long-term incentive c ...

Court Accepts Taxpayer's Expert Value Despite Taxpayer Protests

The issues in this estate tax matter were as follows: the fair market value of Frank DiSanto's (Frank) 186,177 shares (53.5%) of stock in Morganton Dyeing & Finishing Corp. (MD&F) on his date of death; and the fair market value of the MD&F stock Grace DiSanto (Grace) was entitled to inherit from Frank's estate (a minority interest) on his date of death.

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