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Blockage and DLOM Discounts: Options Models to the Rescue

Learn to access real stock market data (with more than 40 million data points) and develop discount estimates specific to the valuation date, industry group, market value decile, and block size for the transaction all from your laptop or smartphone in a matter of minutes, not weeks. You don’t want to miss this webinar if you use DLOM or blockage discounts in your valuation work!

Popular Real Estate DLOC Database Is Not Going Away

Valuation analysts who use the Partnership Profiles real estate database for estimating a discount for lack of control for family limited partnerships have expressed concern about the future of the database. This is a letter from Bruce Johnson with some important news about the database and some recommendations for adjusting methodology.

More from Hitchner’s BV Myth Busters

They’re up to Myth No. 12, which is, “to value a minority interest in a private business, you must first value it on a 100% control basis.”

What to do about the dwindling real estate DLOC database

During the recent BVR Power Panel webinar, a question came in from the audience: What are your thoughts about using the 2022 Partnership Profiles data until the company produces a more up-to-date report?

Automatic DLOC for a minority interest? Not so fast

Business valuation analysts generally agree that minority interests in a privately held company are worth less on a per-share basis than controlling interests.

Quantifying DLOMs for Minority and Controlling Interests

The discount for lack of marketability is one of the largest and most important adjustments made in the valuation of a privately held business. It is crucial to understand that an investor purchases the privately held interest at a discount to increase the rate of return on the investment. This increased rate of return offsets the additional risk the lack of marketability of the investment causes. This webinar will discuss how to use this concept ...

Business Valuation Update Yearbook, 2024 Edition

January 2024 PDF, Softcover (401 pages)

BVR (editor)

Business Valuation Resources, LLC

Another year has come and gone and it's time again for one of BVR's “greatest hits” publications!  The Business Valuation Update Yearbook 2024 covers the previous year’s most groundbreaking and thought-provoking advancements in valuation.  It captures changes in regulations and professional standards, key takeaways from professional conferences, and tactical practice-building ideas. This critical desktop reference puts you ahead of the competition with on-the-ground reporting by the BVR editorial team including an Introduction by Andy Dzamba, BVR Executive Editor and insights from notable BV experts. Learn more >>

Business Valuation Case Law Yearbook, 2024 Edition

January 2024 PDF, Softcover (222 pages)

BVR (editor)

Business Valuation Resources, LLC

The legal coverage and in-depth analysis from the BVR legal team including an Introduction by Jim Alerding, BVR Legal Editor delivers lessons learned to help appraisers reach better and more defensible valuation conclusions. The 2024 Yearbook illustrates how financial experts helped their side win (and lose) in the courtroom and includes 70 new cases that were added to BVLaw in 2023. Learn more >>

Valuation in Times of High Inflation

Over the past year, inflation rates as measured by the U.S. Consumer Price Index have moderated but remain well above the Federal Reserve’s long-term target rate of 2%. The Federal Reserve continues to take measures to control the elevated levels of inflation by raising interest rates and tightening monetary policy. With elevated inflation levels and high interest rates, valuation analysts continue to be challenged with incorporating these macroeconomic trends into the valuation of closely held ...

Updates to two closed-end fund reports are available

Closed-end fund (CEF) data are commonly used to derive discounts for lack of control (DLOC) for closely held holding companies invested in marketable securities.

Implied Control Premiums Through Delaware Appraisal Decisions

The valuation industry has utilized the concepts of control premiums and corresponding discounts for lack of control (DLOC) for decades. There has been considerable debate regarding the application of control premiums paid to acquire public companies, given the likely existence of synergies embedded within those premiums. This article analyzes implied control premiums using Delaware Court of Chancery (the “Court”) decisions in which the Court determined the fair value of the shares of formerly public companies.

Two closed-end fund reports for estimating DLOC are updated

Closed-end fund (CEF) data are commonly used to derive discounts for lack of control (DLOC) for closely held holding companies invested in marketable securities.

Young practitioners question traditional discount methodologies

“Outdated studies” and “emerging quantitative methods” are some reasons why young valuation practitioners are questioning the traditional methodologies for estimating discounts for lack of control and marketability (DLOC and DLOM).

Business Valuation Through an ESG Lens

Understand the risks that environmental, social, and governance (ESG) factors impose on business values. This presentation will begin with an overview of ESG and the current regulatory and disclosure environment. Next, the presenters will dive into the impact that ESG scores have had on investment policies and credit decisions. Lastly, the webinar will cover the impacts of ESG on business values including the ESG components considered in the new IVSC exposure draft.

Understanding Control vs. Lack of Control and Applicable Discounts

Please join us for a refresher course on premiums and discounts related to control (or lack of it). Topics covered will include: when discounts for lack of control apply, elements of control, levels of control, what to look for in governing documents regarding the rights of non-controlling owners, developing a non-controlling value directly versus indirectly, control premiums and various sources for premiums and discounts for both operating companies and holding companies, such as Mergerstat, Partnership ...

Boomers Want Out: Valuing Closely Held Entities

Better late than never! For many business-owner boomers, the challenges they faced during the pandemic (and continue to deal with) have finally pushed them to start letting go of their businesses. This webinar will explore what pushes owners to the exit and how you can help them identify and meet their goals. We will explore alternatives to an outright sale, current business valuation issues, discount trends in valuing closely held entities, key tax aspects, and ...

Business Valuation Update Yearbook, 2023 Edition

January 2023 PDF, Softcover (426 pages)

BVR (editor)

Business Valuation Resources, LLC

It's that time of year again, BVR's “greatest hits” publication is here!  The Business Valuation Update Yearbook 2023 covers the previous year’s most groundbreaking and thought-provoking advancements in valuation.  It captures changes in regulations and professional standards, key takeaways from professional conferences, and tactical practice-building ideas. This critical desktop reference puts you ahead of the competition with on-the-ground reporting by the BVR editorial team including an Introduction by Andy Dzamba, BVR Executive Editor and insights from notable BV experts. Learn more >>

Most States Reject Discounts in Appraisals and Oppression Cases—But There Are Important Exceptions

This article discusses, on a state-by-state basis, the rejection and acceptance of discounts for minority interest and lack of marketability in appraisals and in oppression and voluntary withdrawal cases. Discounts for lack of marketability at the shareholder level are rejected in most jurisdictions, but some states, including California and New York, still permit them.

DLOM: A Practical Look at a Complex Matter—Part 2

This webinar will continue to cover the theory behind discounts for lack of marketability. We will use the methodology we learned in the first part and see how we apply the models and theory to calculate DLOM’s.

DLOM: A Practical Look at a Complex Matter—Part 1

This webinar will cover the theory behind discounts for lack of marketability. We will cover the applicability and the application of using a DLOM on a minority interest as well as on a controlling interest. We will cover the different models and tools that are available for valuators to use when trying to determine the appropriate DLOM.

Valuation Considerations in High Inflationary Environments

After more than a decade of modest price increases, the U.S. Consumer Price Index increased by 9.0 percent in June 2022 which is the largest increase since January 1982, the tail end of The Great Inflation which began in 1965 and lasted for approximately 17 years. With inflation at its highest level since The Great Inflation, valuation analysts will have to consider macroeconomic factors that have not been present in the U.S. economy in over ...

Misusing the Market Prices of High-Vote Shares When Estimating a Discount for Lack of Voting Rights

When analysts estimate a valuation discount for the lack of voting rights in the stock of a private company, they typically look to the public market. Many studies have compared the market prices of publicly traded high-vote shares with the market prices of publicly traded low-vote shares. Unfortunately, when the inputs into these studies are examined, the emperor has no clothes.

Blockage Discounts: How Volume Can Impact Value

Join Pasquale Rafanelli for an exciting look into the complex topic of blockage. Learn what blockage is and how to apply it when valuing securities, stocks, and even artwork. Understand how blockage is different than a discount for lack of marketability. With real-world examples that are applicable to your practice, this event will help you build a defensible conclusion.

Updated versions of two closed-end fund reports for estimating DLOC

Closed-end fund (CEF) data are commonly used to derive discounts for lack of control (DLOC) for closely held holding companies invested in marketable securities.

Reader Question: How Much Is a Discount for Lack of Voting Rights?

In response to a reader question, we put the BVResearch Pro platform to work to reveal what the studies, valuation textbooks, and court cases say about a discount for nonvoting stock—more than enough material to estimate and substantiate an opinion.

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